NGOs and other mission driven organizations tend to focus on one, or maybe a few core issues. The reason for this seems obvious... trying to take on all the world's problems would be too hard. The focus must be narrowed or nothing could be accomplished
Nothing issue exists in isolation. The world we live in is a very complex system. It's hard to address a single issue independently of it's context. That means to make sustainable progress in one area, you often need to work on related issues. Sometimes, working on a related problem is the more effective way to address a specific issue.
People are entitled to basic freedoms and justice. At the core is the rule of law. If the law isn't king, controlling the actions of both individuals and the state, no one will truly have durable rights. Basic security and property rights are the bedrock of a functional society. Without these basic rights people are reluctant to make a personal investment because any results can be taken away by government, criminal elements, or others by the force of arms. In particularly unstable locations making any progress increases the odds that a person will be targeted. Through out history, there have been people who viewed "conquest" as a means to accumulate wealth. Unfortunately, this method is worse than a zero sum game, since not only is there a loser and a winner, but the pot gets smaller because value is destroyed during most confrontations. "Trade" is far superior since it can actually grow the wealth for everyone, but the results take longer to experience and doesn't work when there is no security. See The Birth of Plenty for the connection between economic development and property rights.
One attempt to capture what are these basic rights is the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. While I appreciate the entire list, I think it is a bit more expansive than what I would consider "core" rights, but I haven't spent enough time in study and consideration to make my own list. I think that the UN's list is an excellent starting point, and expect my list wouldn't be much different.
What can be done?
If someone is already dead, there isn't much you can do for them. Deep poverty is at the root of many issues. Over time the percent of people in crushing poverty has decreases, but the number of people has staying largely the same. Today, something like 20% of the world's population is at severe risk from poverty.
Death penalty: It's clear that the use of the death penalty is not wielded in a justice way in the US, so minimally advocate and legal reform is needed. Beyond that, I lean toward abolishing the death penalty since we have numerous example of innocent people being erroneously convinced... with no way to reverse that. Even if someone is guilty I am divided. On the one hand I believe in the value of each human and the chance for redemption. On the other hand some crimes are so heinous and leave some people alive is inviting a great risk of them continuing to violate people.
Abortion: I believe that we should do everything possible to discourage abortions. The first step is to prevent unwanted pregnancies from occurring in the first place. Second, providing alternatives to abortion for people who aren't prepared to keep a baby, but want their baby to live. I think it should be permitted in the case of rape or the mother's life is threatened... beyond that I am not sure. I would like to see abortion be discouraged. I don't think criminalization is the answer. What is the answer? I don't know.
Euthanasia: I believe terminating a life because it's not "high enough quality" / "productive" is a very slippery slope. Who says when a life isn't worth living. How do they know? There are numerous people that some would say should be terminated who had a profound impact and/or found joy in spite of some severe condition. At the same time, medical technology has enabled us to preserve a physical body, even when it seems all traces of a person are gone, or when there is nothing left, providing only the illusion of life for the person who is actually dead, while at the same time causing great expense and possible pain for those left behind. Everyone is going to face physical death... we should insure that when that time comes that it is as humane as possible. I believe in a hospice approach is appropriate at some point.
What is a necessity? This is a hard question to answer because people's expectations can vary so much based on what they have been exposed to. It is often said that "yesterday's luxury are today's necessity". I believe that many people, after being exposed to images of a rich lifestyle, have allowed their desire for affluence to cloud their judgment about what is necessary. I certainly am not a good judge of what is "necessary". Before the industrial revolution, necessities seemed to include clean water, food, clothing, and housing. Many of these items are listed above under "Preserve Life".
It seems to be that the very best way to insure that everyone has the basic necessities of life is for there to be a robust, economic eco-system
We are called to be stewards of the earth. We need to live not just for our generation, but for the generations that follow us. Having luxuries today which would deny those who come after us the basics of life is immoral. Over the years many people have worried about depletion. So far, we seem to have engineered around things are produced plenty. Can this continue, or has this been a fluke.
There is more to life that just physical existence. People should have the opportunity to see beyond the day-to-day physical life that they live. Life is more than eating, sleeping, and working.
Ultimately, we would like everyone to experience contentment and joy. This goes beyond having our basic needs met. In fact, it can exist in the face of great deprivation. Part of being joyful is loving others. If someone is concerned only about themselves, they will never find happiness or joy. There is good evidence that many people don't know what will make them happy: ex: give or spend $50... which will make you happier. - need to know what will make them happy and practice those things. Flow, http://www.authentichappiness.org, etc.
Hmm... right now I have these listed as enablers but I could easily argue for them to be core objectives as well. For the time being I will leave them as enablers, because I think they cut across a number of the objectives listed above. I suspect that trying to solve any or all of the above issues will fail because our world is a system and addressing things as individual issues rather than working the system will fail. More thought is required.
The first three years of life is critical when it comes to setting. Harlem Children's Zone has been very effective. See research by Todd R. Risley.
Education is a powerful enabler... but does not guarantee a good outcome since the content of education and how people then use their education can become either a force for good or for evil. Great good has come from education, but educated people have also stood by and let great evil be done by others if not led the way. How to improve the linkage between doing good and education?
Humans are social creatures. We were made to be in community. Family is one of the core building blocks for an effective community. Family does not necessarily equal the American "nuclear" family... especially given how many American families have blown up. There is good evidence that intact families are extremely beneficial.
Humans are made to create and have the capacity for great expressions. This should be encouraged.
In much of the developing world, half the human resources, women, are not empowered. Changing this could be powerful according to girleffect.org
Track down research on correlations between society trends and terrorism. Seems like terrorism is more closely linked with repressive governments than with poverty which is the classic link.
Problems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that created them. - Albert Einstein
Making a difference starts by recognizing a problem and ends when the overall situation has been improved. The challenge is that many issues are inter-related. To solve one issue, often means you have to deal with a number of related issues. Often times, working on these related issues might be more effective than focusing on a specific area.
Gapminder illustrates that from statistics, several countries is Africa looked to be in a better place than say, South Korea in the 1960s, but since then South Korea is approaching the western world in terms of life expectancy, etc while several African nations have made little progress. Bottom Billion by Paul Collier examines some of the issues. Interesting discussion about Will Money Solve Africa's Problems. A suggestion from an atheist that maybe missionaries would help africa more than aid.
Book has an amazing graph showing huge raise in standard on living since 1820. Claims that this was powered by four factors:
I have suspected for a long time that societies that let wealth be passed from generation to generation without a strong check tend to suffer.
Think about the sabbath year concept -vs- effective capital market